The Challenge of Education and Learning in the Developing World

Michael Kremer, Conner Brannen, Rachel Glennerster
Science Vol. 340 No. 6130 pp. 297-300; 19 April 2013

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Across many different contexts, randomized evaluations find that school participation is sensitive to costs: Reducing out-of-pocket costs, merit scholarships, and conditional cash transfers all increase schooling. Pedagogical reforms that match teaching to students’ learning levels are highly cost effective at increasing learning, as are reforms that improve accountability and incentives, such as local hiring of teachers on short-term contracts. Technology could potentially improve pedagogy and accountability. Improving pre- and post-primary education are major future challenges.

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