Bad air, amulets and mosquitoes: 2,000 years of changing perspectives on malaria

by Ernst Hempelmann and Kristine Krafts
Malaria Journal 2013, 12:232 (9 July 2013)

23 pp. 8.9 MB:

For many centuries, scientists have debated the cause and best treatment of the disease now known as malaria. Two theories regarding malaria transmission – that of “bad air” and that of insect vectors – have been widely accepted at different times throughout history. Treatments and cures have varied accordingly over time. This paper traces the evolution of scientific consensus on malaria aetiology, transmission, and treatment from ancient times to the present day.

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