by Elize Pietersen, Elisa Ignatius, Elizabeth M Streicher
The Lancet, Vol. 383, Issue 9924, pp. 1230-1239, 5 April 2014
In South Africa, long-term outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are poor, irrespective of HIV status. Because appropriate long-stay or palliative care facilities are scarce, substantial numbers of patients with XDR tuberculosis who have failed treatment and have positive sputum cultures are being discharged from hospital and are likely to transmit disease into the wider community. Testing of new combined regimens is needed urgently and policy makers should implement interventions to minimise disease spread by patients who fail treatment.