The Lancet, Published: July 14, 2016
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Prison populations are at especially high risk of HIV infections as a consequence of risk factors that are in play both before incarceration and once in prison where there are frequent opportunities for further transmission. Consequently, prisoners experience high HIV disease burdens and they have little or no access to HIV treatment, prevention, and care. This Series describes the unique and complex nature of an HIV epidemic in an understudied and underserved population, but also shows that quality clinical care can be provided, and that prison harm-reduction and drug treatment programmes can substantially reduce disease transmission.