Too Costly & Too Scarce: Price, availability and affordability of medicines in low- and middle-income countries

PhD thesis by Margaret Ewen
Free University, Amsterdam, 2016

163 pp.
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The aim of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, it aims to shed light on the prices governments and people pay for medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the affordability of medicines for people on low incomes, and the availability of medicines in outlets. The second aim is to assess the impact of three factors on the price and availability of medicines: inclusion in the national essential medicine list (EML), price transparency and comparing prices paid by other government purchasers, and local medicine production.

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