by Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes et al.
Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16: 1356–63 – Published Online: September 15, 2016
The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. The authors report the preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Their data suggest that the microcephaly epidemic is a result of congenital Zika virus infection. The authors await further data from this ongoing study to assess other potential risk factors and to confirm the strength of association in a larger sample size.