by Helen E Jenkins, Courtney M Yuen, Carly A Rodriguez et al.
Lancet Infect Dis 2016 – Published Online: December 7, 2016
Case fatality ratios in children with tuberculosis are poorly understood – particularly those among children with HIV and children not receiving tuberculosis treatment. The authors did a systematic review of published work to identify studies of population-representative samples of paediatric (i.e. <15 years) tuberculosis cases. They conclude that without adequate treatment, children with tuberculosis, especially those younger than 5 years, are at high risk of death. Children with HIV have an increased mortality risk, even when receiving tuberculosis treatment.