by Nazim Habibov and Alex Cheung
Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 178, April 2017, pp. 28–37
Informal Payments (IPs) are commonly defined as under-the-counter monetary (e.g. cash) or non-monetary in-kind (e.g. gift) payments made to healthcare professionals in exchange for services, medicines, and supplies that are meant to be provided for free. The countries of the former Soviet Union, especially those in the Caucasus and Central Asia, exhibit the highest scale of IPs, followed by Southern Europe, and then Eastern Europe. The authors found that being from a wealthier household is associated with more informal payments. Experiencing lower quality of healthcare is associated with more informal payments and working for the government is associated with less informal payments.