by Catharine I. Paules and Anthony S. Fauci
The New England Journal of Medicine – March 8, 2017
3 pp. 763 kB
Yellow fever is the most severe arbovirus ever to circulate in the Americas, and although vaccination campaigns and vector-control efforts have eliminated it from many areas, sylvatic transmission cycles (since the typical transmission cycle occurs between forest mosquitoes and forest-dwelling nonhuman primates, with humans serving only as incidental hosts) continue to occur in endemic tropical regions. The most recent outbreak in Brazil highlights this phenomenon. If the current outbreak leads to urban spread through A. aegypti mosquitoes, clinicians should adopt a high index of suspicion for yellow fever, particularly in travellers returning from affected regions. As with all potentially re-emerging infectious diseases, public health awareness and preparedness are essential to prevent a resurgence of this historical threat.