by Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens et al.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission
Lancet Respir Med 2017 – Published Online March 23, 2017
Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis). The authors discuss epidemiology and transmission dynamics, including new insights into the fundamental biology of transmission, and they review the utility of newer diagnostic tools, including molecular tests and next-generation whole-genome sequencing, and their potential for clinical effectiveness.