by Patrick T Wilson, Frank Baiden, Joshua C Brooks et al.
The Lancet Global Health, Vol. 5, No. 6, e615–e623, June 2017
In low-income and middle-income countries, invasive mechanical ventilation is often not available for children at risk of death from respiratory failure. The authors aimed to determine if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a form of non-invasive ventilation, decreases all-cause mortality in children with undifferentiated respiratory distress in Ghana. They conclude that in the unadjusted analysis the use of CPAP did not decrease all-cause 2-week mortality in children 1 month to 5 years of age with undifferentiated respiratory distress. After adjustment for study site, time, and clinically important variables, 2-week mortality in the CPAP group versus the control group was significantly decreased in children 1 year of age and younger. CPAP is safe and improves respiratory rate in a non-tertiary setting in a lower-middle-income country.